Essential Guide to Troubleshooting Operational Issues for Full-Stack Developers

Essential Guide to Troubleshooting Operational Issues for Full-Stack Developers

In the ever-evolving landscape of software development, backend and Docker issues are inevitable and can seriously disrupt your workflow. Working within the complex infrastructure of modern systems often leads to unexpected problems that require prompt attention and resolution. As a full-stack developer, your ability to quickly diagnose and fix these issues is crucial. This guide offers practical insights into identifying and resolving a range of common errors. You’ll find detailed diagrams, sample code, and step-by-step debugging tips to help you swiftly and effectively get back on track.

Networking Errors

1. Connection Reset by Peer

Diagram:

Client ---------------> Server Connection Reset by Peer
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Example Code:

import socket try: s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM) s.connect(("example.com", 80)) s.sendall(b"GET / HTTP/1.1\r\nHost: example.com\r\n\r\n") data = s.recv(1024) print(data)
except socket.error as e: print(f"Socket error: {e}")
finally: s.close()
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Check Server Logs: Look for crashes or restarts.
  2. Network Stability: Ensure there are no network disruptions.
  3. Timeout Settings: Verify and adjust connection timeouts.

2. Connection Refused

Diagram:

Client --------------X Server Connection Refused
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Example Code:

import socket try: s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM) s.connect(("example.com", 80))
except socket.error as e: print(f"Socket error: {e}")
finally: s.close()
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Server Running: Ensure the server is running.
  2. Port Open: Verify the server is listening on the correct port.
  3. Firewall Rules: Check for firewall rules blocking the connection.

3. Timeout Error (ETIMEOUT)

Diagram:

Client ---------------> Server Timeout
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Example Code:

import requests try: response = requests.get("http://example.com", timeout=5) print(response.text)
except requests.exceptions.Timeout: print("Request timed out")
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Network Latency: Check network latency and bandwidth.
  2. Server Load: Ensure the server is not overloaded.
  3. Adjust Timeouts: Configure appropriate timeout settings.

4. Host Unreachable

Diagram:

Client ---------------> Network Host Unreachable
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Example Code:

import socket try: s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM) s.connect(("unreachable-host", 80))
except socket.error as e: print(f"Socket error: {e}")
finally: s.close()
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Check Host Availability: Ensure the host is up and reachable.
  2. Routing/Firewall Rules: Verify routing and firewall rules.
  3. Network Configuration: Check for network configuration issues.

5. Network Unreachable

Diagram:

Client ---------------> Network Network Unreachable
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Example Code:

import socket try: s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM) s.connect(("example.com", 80))
except socket.error as e: print(f"Socket error: {e}")
finally: s.close()
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Network Configuration: Check network settings and configurations.
  2. Physical Connections: Inspect physical network connections.
  3. Network Devices: Ensure network devices are functioning properly.

6. No Route to Host

Diagram:

Client ---------------> Network No Route to Host
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Example Code:

import socket try: s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM) s.connect(("no-route-host", 80))
except socket.error as e: print(f"Socket error: {e}")
finally: s.close()
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Network Configuration: Verify and correct network configuration.
  2. Routing Table: Ensure correct routing table entries.
  3. Network Segmentation: Resolve any network segmentation issues.

7. Connection Aborted

Diagram:

Client ---------------> Server Connection Aborted
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Example Code:

import socket try: s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM) s.connect(("example.com", 80)) # Simulate an operation that might cause an abort
 s.sendall(b"GET / HTTP/1.1\r\nHost: example.com\r\n\r\n") data = s.recv(1024) print(data)
except socket.error as e: print(f"Socket error: {e}")
finally: s.close()
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Server Logs: Investigate server logs for error causes.
  2. Network Stability: Check network stability and connectivity.
  3. Server Resources: Ensure server resources are adequate.

8. Connection Reset

Diagram:

Client ---------------> Network Connection Reset
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Example Code:

import socket try: s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM) s.connect(("example.com", 80)) s.sendall(b"GET / HTTP/1.1\r\nHost: example.com\r\n\r\n") data = s.recv(1024) print(data)
except socket.error as e: print(f"Socket error: {e}")
finally: s.close()
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Network Devices: Check network devices and their configurations.
  2. Network Stability: Ensure network stability.
  3. Connection Settings: Verify connection settings and protocols.

9. Broken Pipe

Diagram:

Client ---------------> Server Broken Pipe
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Example Code:

import socket try: s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM) s.connect(("example.com", 80)) s.sendall(b"GET / HTTP/1.1\r\nHost: example.com\r\n\r\n") data = s.recv(1024) print(data)
except socket.error as e: print(f"Socket error: {e}")
finally: s.close()
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Remote Host Availability: Ensure the remote host is available.
  2. Network Stability: Check for network stability and connectivity.
  3. Resource Limits: Ensure resource limits are not exceeded.

10. Protocol Error

Diagram:

Client ---------------> Server Protocol Error
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Example Code:

import socket try: s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM) s.connect(("example.com", 80)) s.sendall(b"INVALID PROTOCOL") data = s.recv(1024) print(data)
except socket.error as e: print(f"Socket error: {e}")
finally: s.close()
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Protocol Versions: Ensure compatible protocol versions.
  2. Data Integrity: Verify data integrity during transmission.
  3. Configuration: Check for proper protocol configuration.

11. SSL/TLS Handshake Failure

Diagram:

Client ---------------> Server SSL/TLS Handshake Failure
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Example Code:

import requests try: response = requests.get("https://example.com") print(response.text)
except requests.exceptions.SSLError as e: print(f"SSL error: {e}")
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Certificate Validity: Ensure the certificate is valid and not expired.
  2. Protocol Compatibility: Verify that both client and server support the same SSL/TLS protocols.
  3. Check Configuration: Ensure correct SSL/TLS configuration on the server.

12. OpenSSL Error

Diagram:

Client ---------------> Server OpenSSL Error
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Example Code:

import ssl
import socket try: context = ssl.create_default_context() s = socket.create_connection(("example.com", 443)) ssl_sock = context.wrap_socket(s, server_hostname="example.com") ssl_sock.sendall(b"GET / HTTP/1.1\r\nHost: example.com\r\n\r\n") data = ssl_sock.recv(1024) print(data)
except ssl.SSLError as e: print(f"SSL error: {e}")
finally: ssl_sock.close()
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Valid Certificates: Ensure valid and compatible certificates.
  2. Supported Protocols: Verify support for required SSL/TLS protocols.
  3. Configuration: Check SSL/TLS configuration on both client and server.

13. SIGTERM (Signal Termination)

Diagram:

Process -------------> SIGTERM Graceful Termination
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Example Code:

import signal
import time def handle_sigterm(signum, frame): print("Received SIGTERM, terminating gracefully

...") # Perform cleanup here exit(0) signal.signal(signal.SIGTERM, handle_sigterm) while True: print("Running...") time.sleep(1)
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Graceful Handling: Ensure the application handles SIGTERM gracefully.
  2. Investigate Termination: Determine why the SIGTERM signal was sent.
  3. Perform Cleanup: Ensure proper cleanup before termination.

14. SIGKILL (Signal Kill)

Diagram:

Process -------------> SIGKILL Immediate Termination
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Example Code:

import os
import signal
import time def long_running_task(): while True: print("Running...") time.sleep(1) try: long_running_task()
except KeyboardInterrupt: print("Received SIGKILL, exiting immediately...") os.kill(os.getpid(), signal.SIGKILL)
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Avoid SIGKILL: Use SIGTERM instead to allow graceful shutdown.
  2. Optimize Memory Usage: Ensure the application does not exhaust memory.
  3. Investigate OOM Killer: Check if the Out-of-Memory killer terminated the process.

15. Exited with Code 0

Diagram:

Process ---------------> Exit Code 0 (Success)
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Example Code:

def main(): print("Task completed successfully") exit(0) main()
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Normal Completion: Verify that the process completed as expected.
  2. No Action Needed: No further action required for code 0.

16. Exited with Code 1

Diagram:

Process ---------------> Exit Code 1 (Error)
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Example Code:

def main(): print("An error occurred") exit(1) main()
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Review Logs: Check application logs for error details.
  2. Implement Error Handling: Ensure proper error handling and logging.
  3. Verify Configuration: Check application configuration for issues.

17. Exited with Code 137

Diagram:

Process ---------------> Exit Code 137 (SIGKILL)
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Example Code:

import os
import signal def main(): try: while True: print("Running...") time.sleep(1) except KeyboardInterrupt: print("Process received SIGKILL") os.kill(os.getpid(), signal.SIGKILL)
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Investigate Logs: Check for logs indicating the reason for SIGKILL.
  2. Optimize Memory Usage: Prevent the Out-of-Memory killer from terminating the process.
  3. Avoid SIGKILL: Use SIGTERM for graceful shutdown.

18. Exited with Code 143

Diagram:

Process ---------------> Exit Code 143 (SIGTERM)
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Example Code:

import signal
import time def handle_sigterm(signum, frame): print("Received SIGTERM, terminating gracefully...") # Perform cleanup here
 exit(143) signal.signal(signal.SIGTERM, handle_sigterm) while True: print("Running...") time.sleep(1)
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Graceful Handling: Ensure the application handles SIGTERM gracefully.
  2. Investigate Termination: Determine why the SIGTERM signal was sent.
  3. Perform Cleanup: Ensure proper cleanup before termination.

19. ETIMEOUT

Diagram:

Client ---------------> Server ETIMEOUT
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Example Code:

import requests try: response = requests.get("http://example.com", timeout=5) print(response.text)
except requests.exceptions.Timeout: print("Request timed out")
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Network Performance: Check network latency and performance.
  2. Optimize Server Response: Ensure the server responds promptly.
  3. Adjust Timeouts: Configure appropriate timeout settings.

20. Socket Connection Error

Diagram:

Client ---------------> Server Socket Connection Error
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Example Code:

import socket try: s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM) s.connect(("example.com", 80))
except socket.error as e: print(f"Socket error: {e}")
finally: s.close()
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Network and Server Logs: Check logs for error details.
  2. Socket Handling: Ensure proper socket handling in the application.
  3. Network Stability: Verify network stability and connectivity.

21. OCP Container CrashLoopBackOff

Diagram:

Client ---------------> OpenShift CrashLoopBackOff
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Example Code:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata: name: crash-loop-pod
spec: containers: - name: crash-loop-container image: busybox command: ["sh", "-c", "exit 1"]
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Application Logs: Check application logs for error details.
  2. Configuration: Verify container configuration.
  3. Resource Limits: Ensure adequate resources are allocated.

22. OCP Container ImagePullBackOff

Diagram:

Client ---------------> OpenShift ImagePullBackOff
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Example Code:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata: name: image-pull-backoff-pod
spec: containers: - name: missing-image-container image: non-existent-image:latest
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Image Availability: Verify image availability in the registry.
  2. Network Access: Ensure network access to the registry.
  3. Registry Credentials: Check registry credentials for authentication.

23. OCP Container Not Ready

Diagram:

Client ---------------> OpenShift Container Not Ready
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Example Code:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata: name: not-ready-pod
spec: containers: - name: ready-check-container image: busybox readinessProbe: exec: command: - cat - /tmp/healthy initialDelaySeconds: 5 periodSeconds: 5
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Initialization Logs: Check container initialization logs.
  2. Readiness Probes: Verify readiness probe configurations.
  3. Dependencies: Ensure all dependencies are available and accessible.

24. Docker Daemon Not Running

Diagram:

Client ---------------> Docker Docker Daemon Not Running
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Example Command:

docker ps
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Start Docker Service: sudo systemctl start docker
  2. Check Docker Logs: sudo journalctl -u docker.service
  3. Restart Docker Service: sudo systemctl restart docker

25. Image Not Found

Diagram:

Client ---------------> Docker Hub Image Not Found
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Example Command:

docker pull non-existent-image:latest
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Verify Image Name: Ensure the image name and tag are correct.
  2. Check Registry: Confirm the image exists in the Docker registry.
  3. Authenticate: If the image is private, ensure proper authentication.

26. Container Not Starting

Diagram:

Client ---------------> Docker Container Not Starting
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Example Command:

docker logs <container_id>
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Check Container Logs: docker logs <container_id> for error details.
  2. Verify Configuration: Ensure correct container configuration.
  3. Dependencies: Verify all dependencies are available.

27. Volume Mount Error

Diagram:

Client ---------------> Docker Volume Mount Error
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Example Command:

docker run -v /invalid/host/path:/container/path busybox
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Verify Volume Syntax: Ensure correct volume mount syntax.
  2. Check Permissions: Verify file and directory permissions.
  3. Correct Paths: Ensure host paths exist and are accessible.

28. Network Issues

Diagram:

Client ---------------> Docker Network Issues
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Example Command:

docker network inspect <network_name>
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Check Network Settings: Verify Docker network settings.
  2. Resolve Conflicts: Address any conflicting network names.
  3. Inspect Network: Use docker network inspect for details.

29. Permission Denied

Diagram:

Client ---------------> Docker Permission Denied
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Example Command:

docker run -v /restricted/host/path:/container/path busybox
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Adjust Permissions: Ensure proper file and directory permissions.
  2. Configure SELinux/AppArmor

: Properly configure security settings.

  1. Verify User Access: Ensure the Docker user has necessary permissions.

30. Out of Memory (OOM) Error

Diagram:

Client ---------------> Docker Out of Memory (OOM)
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Example Command:

docker run -m 512m --memory-swap 512m memory-hog
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Increase Memory Limits: Allocate more memory to the container.
  2. Optimize Memory Usage: Ensure the application uses memory efficiently.
  3. Monitor Resources: Use monitoring tools to track memory usage.

31. Port Already in Use

Diagram:

Client ---------------> Docker Port Already in Use
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Example Command:

docker run -p 80:80 nginx
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Use Different Ports: Change to a different port if a conflict exists.
  2. Stop Conflicting Services: Stop other services using the same port.
  3. Check Port Bindings: Verify current port bindings.

32. DNS Resolution Failure

Diagram:

Client ---------------> Docker DNS Resolution Failure
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Example Command:

docker run busybox nslookup google.com
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Configure DNS Settings: Ensure correct DNS configuration.
  2. Check Network Connectivity: Verify network connectivity.
  3. Inspect DNS Logs: Check DNS server logs for issues.

33. Image Pull Rate Limit

Diagram:

Client ---------------> Docker Hub Image Pull Rate Limit
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Example Command:

docker pull busybox
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Authenticate to Docker Hub: Use docker login for authentication.
  2. Consider Paid Plan: Upgrade to a paid plan for higher rate limits.
  3. Use Private Registry: Host images on a private Docker registry.

34. deb.debian.org Timeout Error

Diagram:

Client ---------------> deb.debian.org Timeout
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Example Dockerfile:

# Dockerfile
FROM node:10
RUN apt-get update && apt-get install -y curl
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Debugging Steps:

  1. Update Base Image: Use a newer Node.js image version.
  2. Use Alternative Mirrors: Modify /etc/apt/sources.list to use different mirrors.
  3. Increase Timeout: Adjust timeout settings in the Dockerfile or build script.

Example Solution:

# Updated Dockerfile
FROM node:14-buster RUN sed -i 's/deb.debian.org/ftp.debian.org/' /etc/apt/sources.list RUN apt-get update && apt-get install -y curl
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Summary Table

ErrorDescriptionPossible ReasonsRemedies
Connection Reset by PeerRemote server closed connectionServer crash, timeout, network instabilityEnsure server stability, adjust timeout settings, check network stability
Connection RefusedConnection attempt refusedServer not running, port not open, firewall blockingStart the server, open the port, check firewall settings
Timeout Error (ETIMEOUT)Operation exceeded timeout durationSlow network, server overload, incorrect timeout settingsCheck network latency, optimize server, adjust timeout settings
Host UnreachableCannot reach specified hostHost down, incorrect routing/firewall rulesVerify host availability, check routing and firewall rules
Network UnreachableNetwork unreachable from clientNetwork configuration issues, physical network problemsCheck network configuration, inspect physical connections
No Route to HostNo route to specified hostIncorrect network configuration, network partitioningCorrect network configuration, resolve segmentation issues
Connection AbortedConnection aborted by hostServer error, network instabilityInvestigate server logs, check network stability
Connection ResetConnection reset by networkNetwork device reset, instabilityCheck network devices, ensure stability
Broken PipeConnection broken while writingRemote host closed connection, network issuesEnsure remote host availability, check network stability
Protocol ErrorNetwork protocol mismatch/issueIncompatible protocol versions, corrupted data packetsUse compatible protocols, check data integrity
SSL/TLS Handshake FailureSSL/TLS handshake failedCertificate mismatch/expiration, incompatible SSL/TLS versionsEnsure valid certificates, verify SSL/TLS configurations
OpenSSL ErrorGeneral OpenSSL errorInvalid certificates, unsupported protocolsUse valid certificates, ensure protocol support
SIGTERM (Signal Termination)Graceful termination of processManual/system shutdown, restartEnsure graceful handling, investigate cause of termination
SIGKILL (Signal Kill)Immediate termination of processManual kill, Out-of-memory (OOM) killerAvoid SIGKILL, optimize memory usage
Exited with Code 0Process terminated successfullyNormal completionNo action needed
Exited with Code 1Process terminated with errorUnhandled exception, incorrect configurationReview logs, implement error handling
Exited with Code 137Process terminated by SIGKILLManual kill, OOM killerInvestigate logs, optimize memory usage
Exited with Code 143Process terminated by SIGTERMGraceful terminationEnsure proper handling and cleanup
ETIMEOUTOperation timed outSlow network, server delayCheck network performance, optimize server response
Socket Connection ErrorGeneral socket connection issueNetwork problems, server issuesCheck network and server logs, ensure proper socket handling
OCP Container CrashLoopBackOffContainer continuously crashingApplication error, misconfigurationCheck application logs, correct configuration
OCP Container ImagePullBackOffFailure to pull container imageImage not found, network issues, registry accessVerify image availability, check network/registry access
OCP Container Not ReadyContainer not ready for trafficInitialization issues, readiness probes failingInvestigate initialization logs, check readiness probe settings
Docker Daemon Not RunningDocker commands failDocker service not started, crashesStart Docker service, check daemon logs, restart Docker service
Image Not FoundDocker cannot find specified imageImage not available in registry, incorrect name/tagVerify image name and tag, ensure image exists in registry
Container Not StartingContainer fails to startConfiguration errors, missing dependencies, insufficient resourcesCheck container logs (docker logs <container_id>), verify configuration
Volume Mount ErrorError mounting volumes in DockerIncorrect volume syntax, permission issuesVerify volume syntax, check file and directory permissions
Network IssuesDocker container network issuesNetwork misconfiguration, conflicting network namesCheck network settings, resolve conflicts, inspect network (docker network inspect <network_name>)
Permission DeniedPermission issues accessing filesIncorrect user permissions, SELinux/AppArmor restrictionsAdjust file permissions, configure SELinux/AppArmor properly
Out of Memory (OOM) ErrorContainer killed due to memoryInsufficient memory allocation, memory leaksIncrease memory limits, optimize application memory usage
Port Already in UsePort conflictPort conflict with another service or containerUse different ports, stop conflicting services
DNS Resolution FailureCannot resolve DNS namesIncorrect DNS settings, network issuesConfigure DNS settings, ensure network connectivity
Image Pull Rate LimitDocker Hub rate limitsExceeding the free tier limit on Docker HubAuthenticate to Docker Hub, consider a paid plan for higher limits
deb.debian.org Timeout ErrorTimeout pulling packagesNetwork latency, server issues at deb.debian.org, outdated image baseUpdate Node.js image, use alternative mirrors, increase timeout settings

Conclusion

By following the outlined steps, diagrams, and example code, you can quickly diagnose issues and implement effective solutions. This comprehensive guide provides a valuable reference for improving application reliability and performance.

Feel free to share your thoughts and experiences in the comments below!


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